[Editor: This article, which uses information taken from several books regarding the colony of New South Wales, was published in The Scottish Review (London), October 1884.]
Art. I. — New South Wales.
1. New South Wales: Its Progress and Resources. Sydney: Thomas Richards.
2. Report of the Minister of Public Instruction upon the Condition of Public Schools in New South Wales, established and maintained under the Public Instruction Act of 1880. Sydney, 1883.
3. Speeches on Various Occasions Connected with the Public Affairs of New South Wales, 1848-74. By Henry Parkes. Melbourne and London.
4. Report of Inspector of Public Charities in New South Wales, 1883.
5. Report of the Proceedings of the Inter-Colonial Convention, held in Sydney, November and December, 1883.
The rapid development of the great colonial dependencies of the British Empire is a marvel to European nations. That a mere handful of people, such as inhabits these islands, should be able to spread the fame of the Anglo-Saxon name throughout the world, and to plant the standard of freedom and civilisation in every quarter of the globe, is evidence of a spirit of indomitable energy and enterprise such as the world never before saw, even in the days of Imperial Rome. Centuries ago, the navigators and soldiers of Spain discovered and brought into subjection the Eastern and Western Indies; but of that age of glory and triumph the mere shadow now alone remains; generation after generation witnessed her vast possessions gradually slipping away from the grasp of Spain; and at this day she occupies, both at home and abroad, a subordinate position in the scale of nations. France, Holland, and Germany have also in their turn made many and strenuous efforts at colonization. But while Holland has in the past achieved immortal work in this direction, and Germany is now the only powerful colonizer amongst continental nations, France has never been conspicuously successful with her foreign settlements. Students of race characteristics may find it curious and instructive to investigate the causes of this, but it is unquestionably a fact, nevertheless, that as a pioneer and colonizer France has proved a failure.
With Great Britain, on the contrary, all past experience has been precisely opposed to this. Wherever her sons have gone, with rare and insignificant exceptions, Anglo-Saxon energy has triumphed over all obstacles, and gained a sure footing for the race. Alike in the East and in the West, Englishmen have conquered. India and Australia are tributes to the power and adaptability of Britain, while in America she has planted the germs of a people, whose influence in future ages may overshadow the world as completely as her own does at this day.
The history of every important British colony presents many and varied points of interest. Not the least amongst these colonies, and one that is typical of the rest in many leading aspects, is New South Wales. At the present moment it is but in the first flush of its career, yet the facts we have at command are sufficient to show the magnificent promise held forth of a not far distant and glorious future; and from past success we can to a considerable extent predicate its ultimate progress and extension. It is a colony that is rapidly growing in favour amongst emigrants, and it is constantly receiving from all parts of the mother-country, but especially from England and Scotland, new recruits for that great army of civilization which is destined finally to open up the whole of the Australasian continent. Before that time arrives there must necessarily be periods of difficulty and of crisis, perhaps temporary seasons of arrest of development; but these will pass away, and in the Southern seas through many centuries yet to come, the English name and language are destined to be perpetuated.
For the benefit of those who may be unacquainted with the past history of New South Wales, and its present position, we will proceed to adduce certain facts and statistics, which may not be unacceptable, and which will at least serve to show the resources and capacity of the colony. New South Wales was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770, and settled eighteen years later; but its prosperity began only with the commencement of the present century, when Captain Macarthur introduced Merino sheep, and a rapid settlement of the interior followed. From the first Australasian settlement at Sydney by the British Government in 1788, a noble list of British colonies have sprung, containing an aggregate area of 3,086,128 square miles. New South Wales contains 305,992; Victoria, 87,884; South Australia, 903,090; Queensland, 668,224; Western Australia, 979,392; New Zealand, 104,403; Tasmania, 26,215; and Fiji, 7,740 square miles. At the close of 1881 the population of the British Colonies in Australasia was estimated at 2,833,608, thus distributed — New South Wales, 781,205, including 1643 aborigines; Victoria, 882,282, including 780 aborigines; South Australia, 293,297, including 6346 aborigines; Western Australia, 30,013, not including 2346 aborigines; Queensland, 226,968, not including 20,585 aborigines; New Zealand, 500,910, not including 44,097 Maoris; and Tasmania, 118,923. In 1882 there was an increase of 103,000 souls, arising from the excess of immigration over emigration, and of births over deaths. The colony with which we are immediately concerned has suffered two transformations: in 1851 its south-eastern districts were formed into the Colony of Victoria; and in 1859 its northern districts into the Colony of Queensland.
We hear much of the excellence of Southern Europe as a winter resort, and also as a suitable climate for those who are not robust. But in this matter of climate, New South Wales possesses all the advantages of Southern Europe, and is, moreover, adapted to all kinds of constitutions. It is situated in the temperate zone, and the range of the thermometer is much less than in any country within the same parallels of latitude in the northern hemisphere. ‘The climate is healthy, the air is clear, the light brilliant, the sky for a great part of the year almost cloudless, and the nights usually cool.’ The mean annual temperature of Sydney is 62.4 degrees. The colony is favourable to health and long life. Births per 1000 of mean population in 1881 averaged 38.00 per cent.; deaths, 15.12; so that the excess of births over deaths amounted to 151.33 per cent., a condition of things which we imagine could be paralleled by very few countries in the world. As to the physical aspects of the country, there is at a distance varying from twenty-five to a hundred miles from the sea-board, a range of mountains, from 3000 to 7000 feet in height, stretching from north to south, and throwing out spurs in every direction. ‘Numerous streams flow down the eastern slopes into the sea, while the large rivers, Murrumbidgee, Murray, Lachlan, Darling, and Macquarie, with their tributaries, drain the western slopes. The coast line is indented with fine harbours, one of which, Port-Jackson, on which Sydney the capital is situated, is unsurpassed by any in the world.’ The total superficial area of the colony is estimated at 195,882,150 acres. The coast-line from Point Danger to Cape Howe is about 700 miles long; the extreme breadth of the colony being about 850 miles, the mean breadth 600, and the greatest length 900. The sea-board districts undulate with hill and valley, and possess rich alluvial flats adapted to every kind of cultivation. In mineral wealth, New South Wales is especially favoured. Besides possessing an immense basin of coal, the country abounds in gold, copper, lead, tin, and other minerals. The great slopes and plains of the West are specially adapted to pastoral and agricultural pursuits; and millions of sheep, cattle, and horses, already feed upon the natural grasses of the country. Such is a physical picture, and one not in the least exaggerated, of a country whose natural wealth is now being utilised for the benefit of man.
Judged from the political aspect, New South Wales is somewhat more advanced than ourselves. It practically enjoys universal suffrage, and has the ballot and triennial parliaments. The Governor is appointed by the Crown, but the Colony has its two Houses of Parliament, one of which, the Legislative Assembly, is elected by the people, the other, the Legislative Council, being appointed by the Governor, the members holding their seats for life. The Executive Government consists of nine members, viz., the Colonial Secretary, the Colonial Treasurer, the Minister for Lands, the Minister for Public Works, the Minister of Public Instruction, the Minister of Justice, the Minister for Mines, the Attorney-General, and the Postmaster-General. For the administration of justice, and the protection of life and property, similar means are employed to those operative in Great Britain. The population of the Colony is progressing satisfactorily. The census of April, 1881, gave a total of 751,468 persons in New South Wales. There is some disproportion between the sexes, the males predominating, being 54.71 of the population, as against 45.29 per cent. for the females. The Government is still anxious to promote such immigration as shall be for the advantage of the country, and excellent facilities are granted to those immigrants who are suitable, by the Agent-General or his officers in London. Small working capitalists are much sought after, but mechanics, farmers, miners, vine-dressers, labourers, and domestic servants are very acceptable. Indeed, as in New Zealand, female servants are in great demand, for the large majority of them have no difficulty in marrying comfortably soon after they arrive out.
Complaints are frequently heard from emigrants to British Colonies that they have been made the victims of misrepresentation in regard to the prevalent rate of wages, and other matters. Fortunately, no such misconceptions need arise with regard to New South Wales. We have already seen that the climate offers every advantage to a settler, and now we are able to give an official statement of the average rate of wages prevailing in the Colony. A carpenter will usually receive from 10s. to 12s. for a day’s labour of eight hours; a smith, 8s. to 11s.; a wheelwright, 6s. to 10s.; a bricklayer, 12s. to 13s.; a mason, 11s. to 12s.; and a plasterer from 10s. to 13s. These rates are higher than those which generally prevail in the mother country, and a workman in the colony can obtain board and lodging for from 16s. to 20s. per week, so that all classes of labourers may have a handsome margin of income left. Other occupations are also very profitable. For example, married couples can secure from £60 to £75 per annum, with board and lodging; ploughmen from £40 to £52; farm labourers the same; shepherds from £30 to £52; grooms and coachmen from £45 to £65; and gardeners from £45 to £65, all with board and lodging. Females are even better off in proportion. Cooks in private houses can secure from £45 to £52 per annum, with board and lodging; housemaids and parlourmaids from £30 to £37; laundresses from £40 to £52; nursemaids from £26 to £35; general house servants from £25 to £48; and farmhouse servants and dairywomen from £26 to £32. And with these high rates of wages there is not a correspondingly high rate in the cost of provisions. Bread is not more than twopence per lb.; rice, 3½d.; coffee, 1s. 6d.; tea from 1s. 6d. to 2s. 6d.; fresh and salt beef, 6d.; butter, 1s. 6d., etc. Clothing is also very cheap, and of good quality.
The land policy of New South Wales is a matter of very considerable interest. The best statesmen of the colony have always been of opinion that the c1ass of persons who should be encouraged above all others by legislation are the small cultivators of the soil, the men who by their industry will turn the land to the best possible account. While they would not obstruct the operations of the capitalist in any way, it is no part of the duty of the Legislature to smooth the way for his making a large fortune out of the public lands. This has been the argument employed, it being felt that the settlement of the bona fide tillers of the soil in greater numbers is more for the benefit of the country, than the concentration of lands into few hands. This is undoubtedly a sound and sensible view for any country to take, but especially for a country which has its way yet to make, and has it to make by the energies and industry of the settlers in its midst. Thus we find that the leading principles of the existing land policy in New South Wales are, free selection before survey over all unreserved lands, and deferred payments. This works for the benefit of the immigrant. Conditional purchase of not less than 40 nor more than 640 acres may be made by any person not under sixteen years of age; and so soon as the conditions of residence are fulfilled, a further area of 640 acres can be selected, and adjoining land to the extent of three times the area of the purchase or purchases may be taken up under pre-emptive leases, at an annual rental of £2 per section of 640 acres. Easy terms of payment are arranged. Applications for conditional purchases are accompanied by a deposit of 5s. per acre, but the balance of the purchase money, 15s. per acre, may rest for three years without interest; and if not paid then, or within three years thereafter, may be deferred from year to year, subject to interest at the rate of five per cent. per annum. Payments may be made by instalments of 1s. per acre, and two or more such payments may be made in any year, until the debt (principal and interest), is extinguished. Residence for five years is insisted upon, and improvements to the extent of 10s. per acre must be made. Pastoral tenants may purchase, under the right of improvement, limited portions of their runs. There still remains a vast quantity of unoccupied land, for the total area alienated by grant or sale amounts to only 20,040,846 acres, while there yet existed unalienated no less than 175,841,304 acres on the 31st December, 1881. There have, however, been conditionally purchased 13,746,600 acres. The law offers every facility for the acquirement of land, and land titles, once registered under Torrens’s Act, can never be questioned. It is apparent from this statement that for many years to come the colony cannot be exhausted, as a land of promise, for any British subjects who may feel themselves stifled by competition in the old country.
The transition from the land itself to its products, and to trade and commerce generally, is an easy one. Let us see what advantage is being taken of the exceptional opportunities offered in this direction by New South Wales. The natural position of the colony as the centre of the Australian group, as well as its being the chief market for the islands in the Southern Pacific, is favourable for great developments in commerce. It is also in easy and constant communication with Asia and America, so that it is not surprising to find that more than one half of the Australian shipping is owned in New South Wales. The inward and outward tonnage of 4357 vessels engaged in the trade in 1881 was 2,786,500 tons, as compared with 1,500,479 tons in 1871. Rapid strides have been made in the export and import trades. From 1852 to 1861 the aggregate exports and imports amounted to £100,775,706; from 1862 to 1871 they were £158,981,239; and from 1872 to 1881 they were £262,679,613. The increase of imports in the period 1872-81 over 1862-71 was £48,238,046; and the increase of exports for the same period was £55,460,328. The imports averaged £21 per head, and the exports £20. The places from which imports were received in New South Wales in 1872-81, with the amounts, were the following: Great Britain, £60,983,506; Australian and other Colonies, £60,244,755; foreign countries, £11,842,148. The returns of the total value of exports from the colony during the period 1872-81, give the following figures: Great Britain, £61,384,766; Australian and other Colonies, £62,734,754; foreign countries, £5,489,684. The total amount was, £129,609,204; whereas in the previous decade it was only £74,148,876. According to official statistics, the total value of the trade in 1881 amounted to — imports, £17,409,326; exports, £16,049,503; or in all, £33,458,829, with a balance in favour of imports of £1,359,823. These figures show an import trade of £22. 17s. 3½d., and an export trade of £21 1s. 6¾d. per head of the population, which are higher than the returns of any other colony in the Australasian group, both in the aggregate amount and in value per head of population. The imports from the United Kingdom in 1881 amounted to £8,968,838, and the exports to £7,561,114. Trade with the other British Colonies was as follows — imports, £6,633,107; and exports, £7,189,544. The value of British exports to New South Wales during 1883 was £10,624,081. In the same period New South Wales exported to the United Kingdom articles to the value of £9,884,207. The imports from foreign states received in New South Wales in 1881 amounted to £1,789,381, and the exports to £1,298,845. The United States and China were by far the best import markets, though there is a constantly growing trade with Germany. Each decennial period since 1841 exhibits a satisfactory increase of trade, based on the census population. In the course of thirty years there has been an enormous increase in the public revenue of the colony. In 1851 it was only £532,718, but by 1881 it had risen to £6,714,327. Of the latter amount about £1,500,000 was obtained from customs, £592,000 from stamps, and £115,962 from licenses. The land sales amounted to £2,821,000, and the receipts from the national railways to £1,444,000. The revenue from taxation is stated at £2 6s. 6d. per head of the population in 1881. The tariff, which is established for purposes of revenue only, is one of the simplest in Australasia, free trade being the avowed policy of the colony. This has not always been the case, however. From the year 1865 until the close of the year 1873, ad valorem duties of 5 per cent were imposed upon all articles of merchandise imported into New South Wales not subject to a specific duty, and excepting articles included in a limited free list. But in October, 1873, Mr. G. A. Lloyd, Treasurer in the Parkes Administration, submitted to the Legislative Assembly, in Committee of Ways and Means, proposals to repeal the whole of the ad valorem, and a large number of the specific duties, reducing the tariff to 55 articles. The proposals, with slight modifications, were carried into law.
Some other facts will serve to prove the financial and industrial stability of the colony. The operations of the banks are very noteworthy, for during the last decade their progress far exceeded the increase in population. Their circulation nearly doubled, their deposits and advances more than doubled, and their coin and bullion reached nearly half as much again. The deposits in the New South Wales banks amounted on the 30th September, 1882, to £22,214,684 sterling. Deposits in the Savings Banks during the preceding ten years had increased per head of population from £1 17s. 6d. to £3 12s. 0d., and the large amount to the credit of the depositors demonstrated the existence of both prosperity and thrift amongst the working classes. At the close of 1881 the Public Debt of New South Wales amounted to £16,924,019, or £21 13s. 2¾d. per head of population, which is only equivalent to two and a half years of revenue.
The social condition of such a country is of course a matter of moment, and it is interesting to note that nearly all European institutions have firmly rooted themselves in Australia. As in England, each colony has its newspaper, and its various other means of information, knowledge, recreation, and amusement. The laws are well administered, life and property are secure, and a man can follow his avocations as successfully and efficiently as he can in England. It is gratifying to learn that the intellectual, æsthetic, and moral progress of the colony of New South Wales is keeping place with its industrial occupations. With regard to the various religious persuasions, at the taking of the census of 1881, they were returned as follows:— Church of England, 342,359; Lutherans, 4,836; Presbyterians, 72,545; Wesleyan Methodists, 57,049; other Methodists, 7,303; Congregationalists, 14,328; Baptists, 7,307; Unitarians, 828; other Protestants, 9,957, — Total Protestants, 516,512: Roman Catholics, 207,020; Catholics undescribed, 586; total Catholics, 207,606: Hebrews, 3,266; other persuasions, 1,042: unspecified persuasions, 13,697; Pagans, 9,345. There were 739 Ministers of religion, and 1,389 Churches, with an average attendance at public worship of 221,031 persons. The Sunday Schools had 101,091 scholars on their registers. There are very few idlers and worthless inhabitants in the colony, or persons who cannot give a good account of themselves.
The latest Report of the Minister of Public Instruction on the condition of Public Schools in New South Wales is a very encouraging document, and it places clearly before us the present position of the colony in regard to education. During the past decade, considerable progress has been made with the primary schools. In 1872 these schools numbered 902; the aggregate enrolment of pupils was 88,487, the mean quarterly attendance, 62,986, the average daily attendance, 43,246, and the school fees, £45,994 2s. 7d. In 1881 the schools numbered 1546, the aggregate enrolment, 176,909, the mean quarterly attendance, 125,506, average daily attendance, 82,891, with fees, £46,347 5s. 4d. In 1882 the schools numbered 1658, the aggregate enrolment, 189,141, the mean quarterly attendance, 134,872, average daily attendance, 90,944, with fees, £51,312 5s. 11d. Between 1872 and 1882 the increase in the number of schools was 756, or about 83 per cent. Should a similar rate of progress be maintained during the next decade, — and it is believed that it will be even exceeded, — by the end of 1892 there will be in existence about 3000 schools, affording the advantages of primary education to the residents in that number of localities. Since the Public Instruction Act of 1880 carne into force, there has been a notable stirring of the dry bones in this question of education. For three years the average yearly increase in the aggregate enrolment of pupils has been 18,095, and the average increase in the mean quarterly attendance, 13,334. More than half the increase in the number of scholars in daily attendance during the ten years previous to 1882 had been added since 1879. In April, 1881, the number of children in the colony, ranging from four to fifteen years of age, was 204,468; in December of the same year it was 212,572; and in December, 1882, it was 222,426. The Minister of Public Instruction thus knows what amount of material he has to work upon.
As regards existing means of education, the schools provided at the public expense are the following, — Sydney Grammar School; public schools, 1229; provisional schools, 188; half-time and third-time schools, 81; evening schools, 36; certified denominational schools, 124; orphan schools, 2; and industrial schools, 2. Of schools provided at private expense there are the following, — School for the deaf and dumb and blind; ragged schools, 3; and private schools, 491. Certified denominational schools appear for the last time as schools provided at the public expense, though some will doubtless be continued as private schools. Applications from all parts of the colony for the establishment of new schools pour in upon the Department. In 1882 the sum of £65,831 was paid for new school sites. Contracts were in that year entered into for the erection of 126 new schools, capable of accommodating 14,220 pupils, and for additions which would accommodate 4530 others, making a total of 18,750 places which were to be ready for occupation before the end of 1883, irrespective of those provided in buildings which might be commenced after that date. Very energetic means are now being taken throughout the colony to compel regularity in school attendance, and a vast improvement has taken place since the new Act came into operation. At the date of the last return, the number of children under instruction in the Sydney Grammar School was 487; in the public schools, 134,494; provisional schools, 4,335; half-time schools, 1,646; evening schools, 1,385; certified denominational schools, 26,129; orphan schools, 593; industrial schools, 397; schools for the deaf and dumb and blind, 78; ragged schools, 273; private schools, 17,939; and home schools, 19,123; yielding a total of 206,879. This number, out of a population of 817,468, actually gives one in every four persons as under instruction in ordinary schools. Owing to double enrolment, however, and other causes, deductions must be made from the total number of scholars; but when all such facts have been discounted, primary education in New South Wales is almost phenomenal in character.
Nevertheless, our satisfaction with this condition of things is tempered when we find it stated that the greatest difficulty is not so much the means of bringing children into the schools, as the influences by which they may be kept under instruction for a period sufficiently adequate to allow of their receiving a really useful education. Nearly all the children of the colony are receiving some kind of instruction, but only a very limited portion attend school long enough to make that education effective. In 1882, the pupils attending the full period prescribed by law, 140 days (or beyond that) numbered 73,833, while no fewer than 113,851 attended for less than the legal number of days. This does not give the teachers a sufficient hold upon the raw material, and as the Minister observes, much remains to be accomplished before the object of the Public Instruction Act in this particular has been secured. Turning to the number and the qualifications of teachers, the report furnishes satisfactory results. There was an increase for 1882 of 368 male and female teachers, and the chief examiner states that ‘whatever may have been the inconvenience suffered in particular cases through the operation of the more recent rules enforcing examination before promotion, the results have been, thus far, to excite a very general application to study among the teachers, and to produce sensible improvement in the work of the examinees.’ This is borne out by the Chief Inspector, who reports that a large number of teachers ‘have presented themselves at examination, and a reasonable proportion have succeeded in gaining higher certificates.’ With the present aspirations after higher education, it is only a legitimate expectation that teachers shall see to it that they are fully abreast of the age.
As to the cost of education in the colony, in ten years the Parliamentary Vote received for primary schools has increased five-fold. In 1873 the vote was £120,000; in 1882 it was £630,952 14s. 5d. The average amount per school has gone up from £127 7s. 9d. to £380 11s. 0d.; and the amount per pupil in mean quarterly attendance from £1 16s. 2¼d. to £4 13s. 6d. The total expenditure for the year 1882 amounted to £618,800 8s. 9d., being £144,643 3s. 2d. in excess of the sum disbursed in 1881. The chief causes of this great increase were the payments for teachers’ salaries and for school sites, and the erection or renting and furnishing of school buildings. But these things are fully accounted for by the increased demands of the educational system. While the cost of administration stands at only 8.9 per cent., that of teachers’ salaries, etc., stands at 53.7 per cent., and that of buildings, etc., at 37.4 per cent. Speaking of education generally in the colony, the Minister of Public Instruction reports that notwithstanding the increase in the school population, the means of education have been provided at a rate which will at no distant date leave little to be desired in this respect. The net enrolment of pupils in schools under the Department has increased by 21,883, and the average daily attendance by 8,053. The accommodation already provided, together with that which was to be supplied during 1883, would furnish room for 148,670 pupils, the highest known attendance on any one day being 108,958. Further progress has been made in extending the operation of the obligatory clauses of the Public Instruction Act to country districts, and in the appointment of Public School Boards. As we have already seen, a considerable increase has arisen in the expenditure for the year 1882, chiefly on account of school accommodation and payments to teachers. The average cost of a child’s education, however, though considerably augmented, has not advanced in the same proportion. The expenditure has increased by 30.5 per cent., and the average cost per child in the least favourable aspect by only 18.8 per cent. These figures would contrast very favourably with those of many of the public schools in our own country.
A return issued in connection with the Public Charities shows that the colony is endeavouring to fulfil its obligations in this respect. While there is still a great deal to be desiderated in the management and expenditure of these institutions, on the whole very satisfactory and hopeful progress has been made. The total expenditure on the Charities, from the public revenue, during the year 1882, amounted to £153,003 12s. 10d. In the Department of the Colonial Secretary, there was a general Government expenditure on Charities of £45,420 8s. 8d., as well as the following items, — Subsidies at the rate of £2 to £1 on subscriptions, £4000; subsidies at the rate of £1 to £1 on subscriptions, £22,242 5s. 4d.; unconditional building grants, £51,450; conditional building grants, £3447 7s. 9d.; and extraneous expenses, £1798 4s. 6d. In the Department of the Minister of Public Instruction, the following sums were expended:— Maintenance cost of Orphan and Industrial Schools, wholly borne by Government, £15,237 19s. 5d.; technical education, £3105 3s. 5d.; general education, £4200 3s. 1d.; and buildings, £2102 0s. 8d. Concerning some of the institutions, there are certain objectionable features. For instance, in connection with the Sydney Mechanics’ Institute and Technical College, it is stated that the Society, during the year 1882, received from the public funds, on the plea of being public instructors, the sum of £1755 5s. 10d., which was applied solely to the maintenance and extension of a miscellaneous library, consisting largely of works of popular fiction. But such an abuse of the public funds is very exceptional.
The pastoral resources of New South Wales are very great, and probably unparalleled. Only a very small portion of the natural pastures have as yet been occupied. The total area leased for pastoral purposes in 1881 was returned at 226,083 square miles, the rent being £268,083. There were 4336 pastoral runs, some of which were upwards of 300,000 acres in extent. The fine woolled sheep of the colony are well known, and the Chief Inspector of Stock computes the total increases in the number of sheep for the Australian Colonies, for the twenty years, from 1861 to 1880, as follows:— New South Wales, 628 per cent.; Victoria, 40½ per cent.; Sonth Australia, 112½ per cent.; Queensland, 70½ per cent.; Tasmania, 4¼ per cent.; and New Zealand, 474 per cent. The value of the export of wool from New South Wales amounted in 1881 to £7,149,787, as compared with £4,748,160 in 1871. The value of pastoral exports in 1881, including wool, tallow, skins, salt and preserved meats, and live stock, amounted to £8,816,809, or two and a half millions increase upon the returns for 1871. The value of the local consumption is in addition to this large amount. Out of the twenty-nine millions increase in the number of live stock in the Australasian Colonies during the last decade, two thirds, or nearly twenty millions, were additions to those of New South Wales, which now reach 39½ millions, against a total of 88¾ millions for the whole of the settlements. Farmers and stock-raisers will be glad to know that foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, and other malignant diseases of cattle are unknown in New South Wales. In horses, horned cattle, sheep, and pigs, there has been a great and continuous increase for thirty years past. Animals thrive well, and at less cost, there than elsewhere. From the agricultural returns for New South Wales for the year 1881, it appears that the number of occupiers of land, excluding pastoral tenants, was 39,354; the extent of holdings, 27,692,209 acres; land in cultivation, 645,068 acres; lands enclosed, but not in cultivation, 21,998,845 acres; and land unenclosed, 5,048,656 acres. A tenth part of the entire population of the colony is engaged, directly or indirectly, in agricultural pursuits.
With regard to the crops grown, the fineness of almost all the Australian wheat is universally recognised. The yield of wheat in New South Wales during the season 1881-2 was 15.35 bushels per acre. The crops of wheat, maize, barley, oats, grasses, etc., were very great. Tobacco is grown in the northern coast districts and in the south west, and in 1882 the quantity produced was 2,050,832 lbs. Maize and the sugar cane are largely and satisfactorily cultivated, and the vine is also fast becoming a leading industry in the colony. It was introduced by Mr. John Macarthur about 1820. Since then the yield of wine has averaged from 100 to 700 gallons per acre, though certain kinds of grapes have yielded over 1000 gallons per acre. The area of land occupied by vines in 1881 was over 4027 acres; the quantity of wine produced from 2597 acres only, being 513,688 gallons, and of brandy, 3522 gallons. Grapes for table use covered an area of 940 acres, and the quantity picked was 1103 tons. Happily the ravages of phylloxera are unknown. The orange is in very extensive cultivation. The area planted in 1881 was 6301 acres, and the fruit obtained amounted to 5,164,134 dozens, as many as 10,000 oranges having been gathered from individual trees. Fruit is very cheap, and has a large consumption. All the fruits of Northern and Southern Europe can be grown in the colony with success; and the potato, turnip, pumpkin, arrowroot, mulberry tree, etc., flourish abundantly. There is in fact every species of the best food accessible alike for man and beast.
In mineral wealth New South Wales is especially rich, and it was here that gold was first discovered in the Australian Colonies. The aggregate value of the minerals mined in New South Wales up to the end of 1881 was £55,077,508, made up of the following amounts:— Gold, £34,343,857; silver, £178,405; coal, £12,255,308; kerosene shale, £581,047; tin, £4,339,577; copper, £3,213,558; iron, £117,357; antimony, £29,176; lead, £5,025; asbestos, £323; bismuth, £2729; mixed minerals, £11,147. The number of miners employed was 18,873. The gold-fields extend, with short intervals, throughout the entire length of the colony; and the approximate auriferous area, as far as known, is about 70,000 square miles. Easy terms are made with gold-miners, and it is expected that further discoveries will be made, in hitherto unprospected fields. The quantity of gold received in 1881 for coinage at the Sydney mint amounted to 145,478 ounces, of the gross value of £549,918. The colony also possesses the richest, most accessible, and most extensive coal and cannel-coal seams in the Southern hemisphere, and these, it is confidently asserted, will ultimately make it the greatest and richest of all the Australian Colonies. The approximate area of the carboniferous strata is estimated at 23,950 square miles. By way of showing the growth of coal-mining, it may be stated that in 1833 only 328 tons were raised; but in 1881 there were raised 1,775,224 tons, valued at £603,348. There are large exports of coal, more than one thousand vessels being annually engaged in the traffic. Petroleum oil and other products are largely manufactured from kerosene shale, of which there exist valuable and extensive beds. Copper is worked to a considerable extent, the quantity raised in the colony in 1881 being 5494 tons, valued at £355,062. Tin was raised to the extent of 8200 tons in 1881, valued at £724,003. Precious stones are found in some parts of the colony, and the number of diamonds discovered up to the end of 1880 was estimated at 10,000, the largest being one of 5⅝ carats, or 16•2 grains.
Manufacturing is making good head-way in New South Wales, the makers being able, in many articles, to compete with European producers. In 1881, according to the report of the Registrar-General, there were 193 establishments connected with agriculture, employing 2720 hands; 341 establishments dealing with raw materials, and employing 2694 hands; 289 establishments engaged in the manufacture of food, and employing 2157 hands; 824 building and plastic manufactories, employing 5453 hands; 202 machine, brass, iron, and lead factories, employing 2968 hands; and 971 miscellaneous manufactories, employing 13,857 hands. There were also in operation 159 mills for grinding and dressing grain, employing 2913 horse-power, 472 stones, and 685 hands. Wine-making and tobacco manufacture have become settled industries, tinned meats are extensively produced, and leather, cloth, and woollen industries are being developed. Shipbuilding and the timber trade are also making rapid strides. The reported area of woods and forests under the care of the Conservator in New South Wales, amounted in 1881 to 3,759,796 acres, and the timber cut from them during the year amounted to 3,923,727 feet, from which a revenue of £10,156 was obtained.
But, however vast the internal resources of a country may be, the wealth which lies hidden in its bosom may remain undeveloped, unless sufficient means of working those resources be found, and unless this labour be supplemented by facilities of transit and locomotion. In this respect, nevertheless, New South Wales is doing its duty. It expends annually three millions sterling on public works. Upwards of 23,500 miles of common roads are open, ‘affording intercommunication with every part of the interior, and greatly facilitating the carrying of farm and other produce to the best markets.’ A sum of £5,000,000 has been spent in ten years on these common roads alone, and construction is still going rapidly forward. Mail coaches run through every district; fifty miles of bridges have been constructed; 5000 miles of road are metalled; 1600 miles are graded mountain passes; and nearly all the remainder are drained and cleared. There are eighty-seven public ferries, and railways are being pushed forward. There were 274½ miles of railroad opened in the year 1881, and 504 additional miles in course of construction, while Parliament authorised a further construction of 436 miles. In 1881, on a total of 995 miles open in the colony, the entire earnings were £1,444,226, and the working expenses £738,334, yielding a net return of £705,892, or nearly 5½ per cent. For 1882 the revenue received from railways and tramways was £1,828,093. The total amount of money expended on Government railways in 1881 was £13,301,597, and the expenditure on unfinished lines to the end of the year was £1,781,116. Twelve miles of tramway were open in 1881, and 7,090,125 passengers carried. In 1882 the tramway earnings amounted to £126,170, and by the end of that year thirty miles had been completed, forming a network of communication between the city and principal eastern and southern suburbs. Municipal property in the colony has doubled in six years. The ninety municipalities collected in 1881 a total revenue of £525,189. Sydney alone collected about half this amount. The estimated annual value of rateable property in the suburban and country municipalities was £2,330,946, and in Sydney, £1,449,857. Post-offices exist wherever there are townships, and every village in the farthest interior has its postal communication. The postage on letters within Australia is twopence per half ounce, but newspapers are conveyed free. In 1881 the number of letters posted in the colony averaged thirty-one for every member of the population. Telegraph lines intersect the country in every direction. In 1881 there were 318 telegraph stations, and 14,278 miles of wire, 1,607,206 messages being conveyed during the year. The total cost of constructing the telegraph lines was about half-a-million sterling. With so many of the appliances of civilization in the colony, and so much enterprise and activity, future prosperity in no measured degree must be assured.
The speeches of Sir Henry Parkes, extending over a period of a quarter of a century, afford an admirable picture of the steady growth of the colony, and indeed form a kind of historical survey of its progress. Sir Henry is the oldest Member of Parliament in all the Australian colonies. It is now thirty years ago since he was first elected for the city of Sydney, and during that time he has been a Minister ten years and Prime Minister seven years. If any person, therefore, can speak of New South Wales from fulness of information it is he, and his recent visit to England has awakened renewed interest in the colony. As the editor of his addresses says, from the first of Sir Henry Parkes’s speeches to the last, ‘alike in 1849 as in 1874, the speaker clearly discerns and lucidly expounds the right relations of the people to the free institutions they now enjoy. What he claimed for them before those institutions came into existence, he vindicated and confirmed by his action when he himself became a popular representative and a responsible Minister of the Crown under the better system. The beginnings of freedom in New South Wales were not favourable to its vigorous growth. The people required educating up to it, and the course of their education is legibly traced out in these speeches. Both courage and ability were required to fulfil the self-imposed mission of the teacher.’ As in older countries, so in this new one, Sir Henry Parkes and his friends were called upon to enter on a campaign against privilege and monopoly; and if these had not been broken down, they would have seriously retarded, if they had not altogether checked, the growth of the colony.
Since 1849 the pale of the Constitution has been widened, and free scope has been given to the political, social, and commercial aspirations of the community. The nature of the fight which had to be waged may be gathered from the speeches on Taxation and Free Trade, the Federation of the Colonies, and Public Education. On economic questions, Sir Henry has been in the main a follower of the doctrines of John Stuart Mill; and when he acceded to office in 1873, one of his first acts was, as we have already briefly stated, to repeal the oppressive ad valorem duties then existing, and to simplify the tariff as nearly to the limits of Free Trade as existing circumstances would permit. Nearly twenty years ago, when discussing the question of Federal Union at Melbourne, Sir Henry showed himself the pioneer of Federation, the advocate of a kind of Australian Zollverein, and of the abolition of all the practical absurdities involved in jarring tariffs. But he was more than this, for he enjoys the distinction of being the father of popular education as it is now understood in the colony. It was his measure of 1866 which established Public Education as it now exists, and prepared the way for all subsequent action in this important question. No man could desire a better work with which to link his own name inseparably in the eyes of his successors than that of the education of the people. Upon this basis must the welfare of a nation, and the ultimate safety and stability of a country mainly depend. In a speech delivered in 1869, Sir Henry Parkes observed, ‘Let us by every means in our power take care that the children of the country grow up under such a sound and enlightened system of instruction, that they will consider as the dearest of all possessions the free exercise of their own judgment in the secular affairs of life, while each man will shrink from being subservient to the will of any other man or of any earthly power.’ Alike in social, political, agricultural, educational, and religious questions, Sir Henry Parkes has been the advocate of an enlightened and a progressive policy, and when the history of the colony for which he has so long laboured comes to be written, his name will stand high in the gratitude and esteem of posterity.
The question of federation between the various Australasian colonies has recently been the subject of much discussion; and the public feeling in this matter led to the holding of an International Convention at Sydney in November and December last. The colonies represented were New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, New Zealand, Tasmania, and Western Australia; and the Governor of Fiji and Acting High Commissioner of the Western Pacific subsequently joined the Convention. After many days’ discussion, the Convention passed a series of important resolutions. The first of these was to the effect that further acquisition of dominion in the Pacific, south of the Equator, by any Foreign Power, would be highly detrimental to the safety and well-being of the British possessions in Australasia, and injurious to the interests of the Empire. Other resolutions called upon the Imperial Government to take the wisest and most effectual measures for securing the safety and contentment of the colonies; recommended the annexation of New Guinea; called for some more definite engagement with regard to the New Hebrides, to prevent them from falling under any foreign dominion; pledged the colonial legislatures to bring forward such measures as might be deemed necessary; protested strongly against the intention of the French Government to transport large numbers of relapsed criminals to the French possessions in the Pacific; and expressed a confident hope that no penal settlement for the reception of European criminals would long continue to exist in the Pacific. The Convention further passed a resolution to the effect that while the time had not yet arrived at which a complete Federal Union of the Australasian Colonies could be attained, there were yet many matters of great interest, with respect to which united action would be advantageous, and the Convention therefore adopted a draft Bill, which had been drawn up for the Constitution of a Federal Council, as defining the matters upon which, in its opinion, such united action was both desirable and practicable at the present time. At the final sitting of the Convention on the 8th of December, a series of supplementary resolutions were passed. By these resolutions, the Governments represented at the Convention pledged themselves to invite the colonial legislatures concerned to pass Addresses to Her Majesty, praying that she might be pleased to cause a measure to be submitted to the Imperial Parliament, for the purpose of constituting a Federal Council upon the basis of the draft bill adopted by the Convention. The Convention also recommended that no purchases or pretended purchases of land, made before the establishment of British jurisdiction or dominion in New Guinea, or other island of the Pacific having no recognised Government, should be acknowledged, except in respect of land actually occupied for Missionary or trading purposes; and that, after the establishment of such jurisdiction or dominion, no acquisition of land should be permitted, except through the Crown, and then only for the like purposes. The Convention also expressed a hope that the several colonies of Australia, in order to meet an imminent danger, should without delay pass a uniform law to prevent the landing on their shores of persons from penal settlements in the Pacific, who have been convicted of crimes.
There is no doubt that the various topics raised at this Convention have become great and pressing questions to the Australian Colonies. That of the landing of convicts has caused them great trouble in the past, and threatens to do so again; and we can well understand the revulsion of feeling caused in the breasts of those who are endeavouring to raise the social and moral tone of the society in which they are cast. New Guinea and the New Hebrides, again, offer problems of delicacy and difficulty, and something decisive must be done in regard to them at no distant date. The policy of Federation, even in the modified form of a Federal Council, will be to a great extent a safeguard for the various colonies, for it will enable them to exhibit a united front on all matters in which they are jointly and severally interested.
Meanwhile, New South Wales may be expected to do its duty with respect to the questions looming before it, as it has done in the past. We have endeavoured to place before our readers a view of this important colony, from the industrial, the educational, the material, and the social points of view. New South Wales has never attempted to repudiate its engagements in any way, even when conditions have radically altered. Its public faith has been scrupulously kept, while the aim of the best representatives of the colony has ever been to raise the people in the moral and social scale. The aspiration that in ‘a few more generations destiny will place the Australians amongst the foremost of free and prosperous Christian States,’ is not a baseless or Quixotic one, but is daily in process of being realized. The colonies will grow strong, as the mother country has done, under the ægis of Justice and Progress; and some great indigenous poet of the future will be able to describe New South Wales and its sister colonies as Tennyson has described this beloved England, as a land
‘Where freedom broadens slowly down,
From precedent to precedent.’
The Anglo-Saxon will then, by his sagacity, his enterprise, and his endurance, have bound the northern and southern hemispheres together in the golden chain of fellowship, concord, and goodwill.
accede = to arrive at, assume, attain, or come to (or reach) an office or position (e.g. to accede to the office of Prime Minister, to accede to the throne)
ad valorem = (Latin) “according to the value”; commonly used for a tax imposed on property or goods as a percentage of the value of the item
ægis = (also spelt: aegis) the protection, backing, control, guidance, sponsorship, or support of a particular entity, person, or group
art. = an abbreviation of “article”
auriferous = containing gold; gold-bearing; producing or yielding gold
Australasian = of or relating to Australasia (Australia and New Zealand; in a wider context, it can refer to Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, and neighboring islands)
avocation = vocation, job, occupation, trade (can also refer to: a hobby, recreational work; a lesser or minor occupation)
bona fide = (Latin) “in good faith”, often used regarding offers that are made sincerely and in good faith (without fraud or deceit), or in relation to items that are genuine (i.e. not counterfeit or specious)
bullion = precious metal in quantity, or as a raw material, usually referring to gold or silver (especially referring to gold or silver in the form of bars or ingots)
concord = accord, agreement, harmony, unanimity; amity, peace; a treaty
Committee of Ways and Means = a government finance committee, which considers, reviews, and recommends ways and methods (usually via taxation) to raise the financial revenue needed to enable good governance
See: “Ways and means committee”, Wikipedia
the Crown = the governing power of a land operating under a constitutional monarchy, which is said to govern on behalf of the Crown (i.e. on behalf of the ruling monarch); may refer to the government or elements acting on the behalf of government (e.g. a legal prosecuting service operating in the name of “the Crown”); monarchical, regal, or imperial power; a monarch (King or Queen), an emperor
d. = a reference to a penny, or pennies (pence); the “d” was an abbreviation of “denarii”, e.g. as used in “L.S.D.” or “£sd” (pounds, shillings, and pence), which refers to coins used by the Romans, as per the Latin words “librae” (or “libra”), “solidi” (singular “solidus”), and “denarii” (singular “denarius”)
decennial = occurring every ten years; something lasting ten years; the tenth anniversary of an occasion; the celebration or commemoration of a tenth anniversary
domestic servant = someone employed on a household staff, including butlers, cooks, footmen, housekeepers, housemaids, nursemaids, parlourmaids, scullerymaids, valets, and general servants; a household servant hired to attend to tasks in a home
dumb = mute, unable to speak; unwilling to speak; silent, not speaking (can also refer to: a lack of intelligence; someone who lacks intelligence, or who is regarded as stupid; something which is stupid, foolish, or pointless)
Empire = in the context of early Australia, the British Empire
Federal Council = the Federal Council of Australasia, a consultative and legislative body of representatives from several colonies of Australasia; it was officially formed in 1885 (prior to the federation of the Australian colonies in 1901)
See: “Federal Council of Australasia”, Wikipedia
Federal Union = the federation of the Australian colonies
free trade = in economics, a belief in not having tariff barriers, or any other protective measures, so as to enable the free flow of goods into a country, state, or colony (however, some “Free Trade” governments may use a limited amount of tariff barriers or other protective measures)
G. A. Lloyd = George Alfred Lloyd (1815-1897), a businessman and NSW politician; he served as Postmaster-General, and Treasurer; he was born in Norwood (Surrey, England) in 1815, and died in Elizabeth Bay (Sydney, NSW) in 1897
See: 1) G. P. Walsh, “Lloyd, George Alfred (1815–1897)”, Australian Dictionary of Biography
2) “George Lloyd (politician)”, Wikipedia
germ = the basis, beginning, or origin of an idea or project; a seed, spore, bud, or plant embryo from which a new organism can develop (can also refer to: a pathogenic microorganism which can cause disease, e.g. a bacterium or virus; a bug)
hand = a labourer, a worker (especially a manual worker, e.g. a farm hand, a factory hand); an employee; an agent; a servant; a member of a crew or a staff, especially one whose work generally comprises of physical labour or hard work carried out with the strength of one’s hands (e.g. a sailor, such as used in the phrase “all hands on deck”); can also refer to: someone who is skilled at a job or task (e.g. an old hand at the business)
Henry Parkes = Sir Henry Parkes (1815-1896), the owner and editor of The Empire newspaper (Sydney), and Premier of New South Wales for five separate terms (1872-1875, 1877, 1878-1883, 1887-1889, 1889-1891)
See: 1) A. W. Martin, “Parkes, Sir Henry (1815–1896)”, Australian Dictionary of Biography
2) “Henry Parkes”, Wikipedia
Her Majesty = a title of respect used regarding a female monarch (a queen); in the context of the British Empire, the Queen of the United Kingdom
Imperial Government = in the context of early Australia, the British government
Imperial Parliament = in the context of early Australia, the British Parliament
John Macarthur = (1767-1834), a British Army officer, entrepreneur, pastoralist, and politician; he was born in England in 1767, arrived in Australia in 1790, was involved in the Rum Rebellion (1808) against Governor William Bligh (1754-1817), raised a popular breed of merino sheep, became an appointed member of the NSW Legislative Council, and died in Camden (NSW) in 1834
See: 1) Margaret Steven, “Macarthur, John (1767–1834)”, Australian Dictionary of Biography
2) “John Macarthur (wool pioneer)”, Wikipedia
John Stuart Mill = (1806-1873), an English economist, philosopher, colonial administrator (in India), and Member of Parliament (UK)
See: “John Stuart Mill”, Wikipedia
lb. = pound (a unit of measurement); the abbreviation of “pound” is “lb.” (plural: lbs.), derived from the Latin “libra pondo” (meaning “a pound by weight”), being an ancient Roman unit of measurement (a “libra” was a balance or scales, with which items were weighed)
lbs. = pounds; plural of “pound” (a unit of measurement) [see: lb.]
metalled = constructed with road metal; descriptive of a metal road (also known as a “gravel road”): a road constructed from broken stone, cinders, crushed rock, gravel, etc. (known as “road metal”)
mother country = in an historical Australian context, Great Britain; may also refer to England specifically (may also be hyphenated, i.e. mother-country)
mother-country = [see: mother country]
the old country = a reference to the country from where one came or from where one’s family originated; in an Australian context, “the old country” refers to the nation which settled Australia, and thus the phrase commonly refers to Great Britain or the United Kingdom (or to England specifically)
Parkes = [see: Henry Parkes]
Parliamentary Vote = money or finances allocated by a decision or a vote of parliament
per annum = (Latin) per year; in each year, for each year (in financial terms, an amount that is earned, paid, received, sold, spent, or used each year)
per cent. = an abbreviation of “per centum” (Latin, meaning “by a hundred”), i.e. an amount, number, or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100; also rendered as “per cent” (without a full stop), “percent”, “pct”, “pc”, “p/c”, or “%” (per cent sign)
Prime Minister = the head of government in a parliamentary democracy; (in the context of the British Empire or the British Commonwealth) the head of a national government in a parliamentary democracy under the British monarchy — being the head, leading, or “prime” minister of a group of ministers of the Crown (whilst the parliamentary heads of government of the Australian colonies were usually known as Premiers, they were sometimes called Prime Ministers)
Quixotic = acting in a manner which is very chivalrous, idealistic, noble, and romantic, but doing so in a way, or in circumstances, which make one’s actions deluded, foolish, impractical, naive, overly optimistic, or unrealistic; of or relating to an overly hopeful, chivalric, and naive pursuit, quest, or approach to life (when the realistic outcome renders such idealistic actions as hopeless and impractical); having a desire to do idealistic, noble, and romantic acts or deeds, regardless of the impracticality of such actions; acting impulsively; befitting, resembling, or acting in the manner of Don Quixote; derived from the main character of the book The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha (1605), by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616), which is also published using the shorter title of Don Quixote (can be spelt as “Quixotic” or “quixotic”, i.e. with or without a capital letter)
See: 1) “Don Quixote”, Wikipedia
2) “Quixotism”, Wikipedia
race = nationality; people of a particular national or ethnic origin (distinct from the historical and/or common usage of “race” referring to a sub-species of humans, such as Caucasians, Mongoloids, and Negroids, or Europeans, Asians, and Africans)
s. = a reference to a shilling, or shillings; the “s” was an abbreviation of “solidi”, e.g. as used in “L.S.D.” or “£sd” (pounds, shillings, and pence), which refers to coins used by the Romans, as per the Latin words “librae” (or “libra”), “solidi” (singular “solidus”), and “denarii” (singular “denarius”)
sagacity = the quality of being sagacious: wise, shrewd; having or showing acute mental discernment, sound judgment, good perception
Tennyson = Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892), an English poet
See: “Alfred, Lord Tennyson”, Wikipedia
twopence = two pennies (“pence” is the plural of “penny”, regarding a sum of money; whilst “pennies” is the plural form of “penny”, regarding a number of penny coins); a penny was a unit of British-style currency (12 pennies were worth a shilling, 240 pennies were worth a pound); pennies, shillings, and pounds were used in Australia, until the decimalisation of the currency in 1966 (the decimal monetary equivalent of a penny was approximately 0.833 cents, with sixpence coins being used as equivalent to five-cent coins during the changeover period; alternatively, one cent was worth 1.2 pennies)
viz. = (Latin) an abbreviation of “videlicet” (a contraction of the Latin phrase “videre licet”), meaning “it is permitted to see” (the “z” derives from the z-shaped Latin shorthand symbol for “et”, as used in the Tironian shorthand style); in actual practice, “viz.” is used as a synonym for “in other words”, “namely”, “that is to say”, “to wit”, or “which is” (used when giving further details about something, or giving a list of specific examples or items)
Zollverein = (German, meaning “Customs Union”) an economic coalition of German states, formed in 1834, whereby member states agreed not to charge custom fees to other member states, effectively creating a free trade zone within much of Germany
See: 1) “Zollverein”, Encyclopaedia Britannica
2) “Zollverein”, Wikipedia
[Editor: Changed “Western Australia; 979,392” to “Western Australia, 979,392” (used a comma, in line with the rest of the sentence); “Maories” to “Maoris”; “its south-western districts” to “its south-eastern districts”; “hours, a smith” to “hours; a smith” (used a semi-colon, in line with the rest of the sentence); “£22. 17s. 3½d” to “£22. 17s. 3½d.” (added a period); “£21. 1s. 6¾d” to “£21 1s. 6¾d.” (added a period); “Lutherans, 4836” to “Lutherans, 4,836” (added a comma, in line with other numbers in the same sentence; however, all other 4-digit numbers without commas have been left as they are in the article, which has a mix of 4-digit numbers, with and without commas, possibly dependent upon the original source from which the numbers were obtained).]