Glossary [for The Eureka Stockade, by Raffaello Carboni]

The Eureka Stockade by Raffaello Carboni is full of terms and references that would be unfamiliar to the majority of modern readers; therefore, various words and phrases are listed here as an explanatory aid. To make this glossary more accessible, particulary in relation to foreign words and phrases, entries with initial articles are listed alphabetically inclusive of the initial article (e.g. “la vita” is located under L).

Raffaello Carboni utilized many French, Italian and Latin phrases in The Eureka Stockade, with a particular emphasis on quoting Biblical passages and classic Latin authors, such as Cicero, Horace, Ovid, and Virgil. A sizable amount of this glossary deals with translations and noting the origins of the phrases quoted or alluded to by Carboni. A large number of references have also been provided.

This is part one of the glossary (covering A-K); click here for part two of the glossary (covering L-Z).



ab initio et ante secula = (Latin) “from the beginning of time”, or “from the beginning, and before time” (also translated as “from the beginning, and before the world”); from Ecclesiastes 24:14 (Ecclesiasticus 24:14) in the Latin Bible
Ecclesiasticus 24 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallel: Knox, Biblia Sacra Vulgatam, Haydock Commentary”, Veritas Bible (accessed 30 December 2012)
Ecclesiasticus 24 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallel: Haydock Commentary, Knox, Clementine Latin Vulgate, Sacred Scripture Shortcuts”, Veritas Bible (accessed 30 December 2012)
M. L’Abbe Glaire. La Sainte Bible en Latin et en Français, Amedree Saintin, Paris, 1836, 1836, page 1137
The Holy Bible: A Translation from the Latin Vulgate in the Light of the Hebrew and Greek Originals, third edition, Burns & Oates, London, 1959, page 607

ab initio usque ad finem horribile dictu = (Latin) “from the beginning to the end, horrible to say”; “ab initio usque ad finem” may have been taken from Ecclesiastes 3:11 in the Latin Bible (“est Deus ab initio usque ad finem”, “which God has made from the beginning to the end”) or from Deuteronomy 13:7 in the Latin Bible (“ab initio usque ad finem terrae”, “from one end of the earth to the other”) [the same text from Deuteronomy may be referred to in Bibles as Deuteronomy 13:7 or 13:8, due to a slight variation in how the numbering is applied]; “horribile dictu” (also rendered as “horribile dictum”) is a Latin phrase, meaning “horrible to say” or “horrible to relate”
ab initio usque ad finem:
Ecclesiastes 3”, New Advent (accessed 9 January 2013)
Ecclesiastes 3:11”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 9 January 2013)
Ecclesiastes 3:11 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallel: Christian Community, New Jerusalem, Clementine Latin Vulgate, Biblia Sacra Vulgatam”, Veritas Bible (accessed 9 January 2013)
ab initio usque ad finem terrae:
Biblia Sacra Vulgatae Editionis, Nicolaum Pezzana [Nicolas Pezzana], Venetiis [Venice, Italy], 1669, page 136”, (accessed 27 January 2013)
Deuteronomy 13”, New Advent [see: Deuteronomy 13:8] (accessed 9 January 2013)
Deuteronomy 13:7”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 9 January 2013)
Deuteronomy 13:7 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallel: Christian Community, New Jerusalem, Clementine Latin Vulgate, Biblia Sacra Vulgatam”, Veritas Bible (accessed 9 January 2013)
horribile dictu:
horribile dictu”, Merriam-Webster Online (accessed 9 January 2013)

ab uno disce omnes = (Latin) “from one learn all” [the meaning of the phrase is that from a single instance, one can learn the nature of the whole, or of a type]; from the Aeneid, Book 2 (lines 65-66), by Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro, 70 BC – 19 BC)
A New Dictionary of Quotations from the Greek, Latin, and Modern Languages, Translated into English, J.B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1869, page 11 (accessed 28 January 2013)
John G. Robertson. Robertson’s Words for a Modern Age: A Cross Reference of Latin and Greek Combining Elements, Senior Scribe Publications, Eugene (Oregon), 1991, page 237 (accessed 28 January 2013)
The Works of Virgil Translated into English Prose, George B. Whittaker et al, London, 1826, page 242 (see 2nd line) (accessed 28 January 2013)
P. Vergili Maronis Aeneidos Liber Secvndvs”, The Latin Library (accessed 28 January 2013)

abyssus, abyssum invocat = “deep calls to deep”, or “abyss calls out to abyss”, or “hell invokes hell”; from Psalm 41:8 in the Latin Vulgate Bible [in various other Bibles, this is in Psalm 42:8, as the numbering of the Psalms varies between different versions of the Bible], “Abyssus abyssum invocat, in voce cataractarum tuarum; omnia excelsa tua, et fluctus tui super me transierunt.” (“Deep calls on deep, at the noise of your flood-gates. All your heights and your billows have passed over me.”); this passage has been subject to various interpretations (one interpretation being that of someone calling out to God, from whom he feels very distant); one usage of the phrase is to infer that one misstep will lead to another (and thus “hell invokes hell”)
Biblia Sacra Vulgatae Editionis, Nicolaum Pezzana [Nicolas Pezzana], Venetiis [Venice, Italy], 1669, page 406 (accessed 20 January 2013)
Psalms 42”, New Advent [Psalm 42:8] (accessed 12 January 2013)
Psalms 41:8 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallelChristian Community, New Jerusalem, Clementine Latin Vulgate, Biblia Sacra Vulgatam”, Veritas Bible (accessed 12 January 2013)
Peter Archer and Linda Archer. 500 Foreign Words and Phrases You Should Know to Sound Smart, Adams Media, Avon (Massachusetts, USA), 2012, page 16 (accessed 12 January 2013)
Hans Urs Von Balthasar. Bernanos: An Ecclesial Existence, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, 1996, page 456 (accessed 12 January 2013)
David J. Hildner. Poetry and Truth in the Spanish Works of Fray Luis de León, Tamesis Books, London, 1992, page 88
Clifford A. Hull, Steven R. Perkins, and Tracy Barr. Latin For Dummies, Wiley Publishing, Hoboken (New Jersey, USA), 2002, [page not numbered, page 393?] (accessed 12 January 2013)

*accidenti alle spie = (Italian) “damn spies” (*rough translation)

accingere gladio tuo super femur tuum = (Latin) “gird your sword on your thigh”; from Psalm 44:4 in the Latin Vulgate Bible [in various other Bibles, this is in Psalm 45:4, as the numbering of the Psalms varies between different versions of the Bible]
Biblia Sacra Vulgatae Editionis, Nicolaum Pezzana [Nicolas Pezzana], Venetiis [Venice, Italy], 1669, page 407 (accessed 20 January 2013)
P. V. Higgins. Commentary on the Psalms, M. H. Gill & Son, Dublin, 1913, page 81
Psalm 45”, New Advent [Psalm 45:4] (accessed 9 January 2013)
Psalms 44:4 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallel: Christian Community, New Jerusalem, Clementine Latin Vulgate, Biblia Sacra Vulgatam”, Veritas Bible (accessed 9 January 2013)
Liber Psalmorum”, The Latin Library [“Psalmus 44”] (accessed 9 January 2013)

Adelphi = the Adelphi Theatre in Ballarat

ad libitum = (Latin) “at one’s pleasure” (literally “at pleasure”), commonly abbreviated to “ad lib”; in music it denotes a section which may be played according to the desire of the musician, and not necessarily in strict time, whilst in acting it refers to actors speaking without following a prepared script
Eliezer Edwards. Words, Facts, & Phrases: A Dictionary of Curious, Quaint, & Out-of-the-Way Matters, Chatto & Windus, London, 1897, page 6 (accessed 10 January 2013)
Chambers’s Encyclopedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge for the People, J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1871, page 45 (accessed 10 January 2013)
Samuel Seldon. First Steps in Acting, F. S. Crofts & Co., [USA], 1947, page 340 (accessed 10 January 2013)

*ad opus concilium statutum = (Latin) “council decided to work” (*rough translation)

Ainsi-Soit-Il = (French) “So-be-it” (Amen)

a jove principum = (Latin) “beginning with Jove” (also translated as “from Jove is the beginning of all things”); from Eclogues, Book 3 (line 60), by Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro, 70 BC – 19 BC): “Ab jove principium, Musae” (“From Jove, ye Muses, let us begin”, also translated as “The beginning of my song is from Jupiter” [Jove])
Jon R. Stone. The Routledge Dictionary of Latin Quotations: The Illiterati’s Guide to Latin Maxims, Mottoes, Proverbs, and Sayings, Routledge, New York, 2005, page 133 (accessed 29 December 2012)
The Works of Virgil: Translated Into English Prose, Vol. 1 fifth edition, Joseph Davidson, [UK], 1770, page 14 (accessed 29 December 2012)
John Martyn. Publii Virgilii Maronis Bucolicorum Eclogae Decem. The Bucolicks of Virgil, London, R. Reily, 1749, page 111 (accessed 29 December 2012)
EUdict: Latin-English dictionary: Results for: a Jove principium”, EUdict: European Dictionary (accessed 29 December 2012)
P. Vergili Maronis Ecloga Tertia”, The Latin Library [“Ab Iove principium Musae”] (accessed 29 December 2012)

a la Napoleon = (French) “in the manner of Napoleon”, or “in the style of Napoleon” (“a la” is short for “à la mode de”, “in the manner of”)

*Al mondo vivi, poiché non sei sepolto = (Italian) “To the world you live, because you are not buried” (*rough translation)

*al mondo vivo perche non son sepolto = (Italian) “I live in the world because they are not buried” (*rough translation)

*amare rimembranze = (Italian) “bitter memories” [or “loving remembrance”?] (*rough translation)

*antica storia = (Italian) “ancient history” (*rough translation)

* A passo lo stradello lentamente = (Italian) “A wheelbase the stradello slowly” (*rough translation)

*arcane, impenetrabili, profonde, son le vie di chi die l’esser al niente = (Italian) “arcane, impenetrable, deep [profound], are the ways of those who die to be nothing” (*rough translation); from the works of Solomon Fiorentino (1743–1815), an Italian poet
Salomone Fiorentino. Poesie di Salomone Fiorentino [Poems of Solomon Fiorentino], Presso Molini, Landi, E.C., Firenze [Florence, Italy], 1806, page 11
Salomone Fiorentino. Poesie di Salomone Fiorentino [Poems of Solomon Fiorentino], Presso Leonardo Ciardetti, Firenze [Florence, Italy], 1823, page 17
Salomone Fiorentino”, Wikipedia [Italian] (accessed 3 January 2013) [translated]

**audaces fortuna juvat = (Latin) “fortune favors the bold” (which may also be given as “fortes fortuna iuvat”, “fortune favors the brave”)

**audi alteram partem = (Latin) “listen to the other side”, or “hear the other side too” (literally “it should be heard also the other party”)

auld lang syne = (Scottish) “times long past” (literally, “old long since”), similar to “the good old days”; commonly known in relation to the song “Auld Lang Syne”, being the poem written by Robert Burns (and later set to music) which was based upon an old Scottish song

Australia Felix = (Latin) “fortunate Australia”, or “happy Australia” (“felix” may be translated as blessed, fortunate, happy, lucky, or successful)

*avanti il tuo cospetto, dio potente! grida vendetta il sangue innocente = (Italian) “bring forward your presence, mighty God! innocent blood cries out for vengeance” (*rough translation)

B = (“with their characteristic B, and infamous B again”) a reference to swearing, presumably referring to the word “bloody”

basta cosi = (Italian) “that’s enough” (or “that’s all”)
Learn Italian phrases: At the market”, The Guardian, Tuesday 14 July 2009 (accessed 18 January 2013)
Basic Italian”, Wikinapoli (accessed 18 January 2013)
Mario Costantino. Italian at a Glance, Barron’s Educational Services, New York, 2003, page 300 (accessed 18 January 2013)

beati qui sunt pacifici, quoniam filii dei vocabuntur = (Latin) “blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God”; from Matthew 5:9 in the Latin Bible [also rendered as “beati pacifici, quoniam filii Dei vocabuntur”, “blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God”]
Novum Testamentum Domini Nostri Jesu Christi D. Appleton & Company, New York, 1863, page 4 (accessed 7 January 2013)
Matthew 5”, New Advent (accessed 7 January 2013)
Matthew 5:9”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 7 January 2013)
Matthew 5:9 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallel: Christian Community, New Jerusalem, Clementine Latin Vulgate, Biblia Sacra Vulgatam”, Veritas Bible (accessed 7 January 2013)

beatus vir qui timet Dominum = (Latin) “blessed is the man that fears the Lord”; from Psalm 111:1 in the Latin Vulgate Bible [in various other Bibles, this is in Psalm 112:1, as the numbering of the Psalms varies between different versions of the Bible]
Biblia Sacra Vulgatae Editionis, Nicolaum Pezzana [Nicolas Pezzana], Venetiis [Venice, Italy], 1669, page 432 (accessed 20 January 2013)
Psalm 112”, New Advent (accessed 10 January 2013)
Psalm 112:1”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 10 January 2013)
Psalms 111:1 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallelChristian Community, New Jerusalem, Clementine Latin Vulgate, Biblia Sacra Vulgatam”, Veritas Bible (accessed 10 January 2013)

billet doux = (French) “love letter” (literally, “sweet letter”)

bis = (Latin) “again” or “repeat”; a term used, especially in music, to ask that a passage or performance be repeated

blue and red coats = police (who wore blue coats) and soldiers (who wore red coats)

blue pissants = police (in colonial Victoria, the police wore blue coats)

*Brava gente. Dio vi benedica. Mio Fratello desidera veder ciascuno di Voi, nella nostra Bella Itallia. [Italia] = (Italian) “Good people. God bless you. My brother wants to see each of you in our beautiful Italy.” (*rough translation)

*cambia la pelle il serpe, non il veleno = (Italian) “change the skin the snake, not the poison” (*rough translation)

cat’s-paw = a person unwittingly used by someone else for their own ends; a dupe or a tool; the phrase is derived from the fable “The Monkey and the Cat” adapted by the French author Jean de La Fontaine (1621-1695)

*cela n’est pas tout-a-fait comme chez nous = (French) this is not all-a-like home made (*rough translation)

*Cependant, moi, bon garcon apres tout, et d’une ancienne famille Romaine, j’ai ete VOLE sous arret au Camp de Ballaarat par VOS gens et avec impunite, Monseigneur. Vous me faites l’honneur d’avouer par votre lettre la chose, mais vous n’avez point fait de restitution. Ce n’est pas comme cela que j’entends le vieux mot Anglais = (French) “But me, good boy after all, and an old Roman family, I was STOLEN stop in at Camp YOUR Ballaarat by people with impunity and, my lord. You do me the honor to acknowledge your letter thing, but you have not made restitution. This is not how I hear the old English word” (*rough translation)

*cetera quando rursum scribam = (Latin) “I will write again when the rest”, or “other again when the secretary” (*rough translation) [this phrase appears in chapters LIX (59) and LXXIX (79)]

Charley = Charles LaTrobe, superintendent (September 1839 to January 1851) of the Port Phillip District, then lieutenant-governor (January 1851 to May 1854) of Victoria (the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales in July 1851 and became known as Victoria)

*Che casa del diavolo, per Dio! Che ti pare! niente meno si spalanca l’inferno. Alla larga! Sor Fattorone: Pronti denari, Fan patti chiari. Minca coglione = (Italian) “That the house of the devil, for God! What do you think! anything less opens hell. Stay away! Sor Fattorone: Ready money, Fan clear agreements. Minca jerk” (*rough translation)

cheval de bataille = (French) literally “horse of battle”; a warhorse, refers to a line of argument constantly used

chi sta bene non si move = (Italian) “those who are well should not change” (an Italian proverb)
Reminiscences of Michael Kelly of the King’s Theatre, and Theatre Royal Drury Lane (Volume 1), Henry Colburn, London, 1826, page 54
Marcello Staglieno. Proverbi Genovesi: Con I Corrispondenti in Latino ed in Diversi Dialetti d’Italia, Presso Gerolamo Filippo Garbarino, Genova [Genoa, Italy], 1869, page 70

Cives! Cives! Querenda pecunia primum, post nummos virtus [quaerenda pecunia primum, virtus post nummos] = (Latin) “Citizens! Citizens! Money must be sought for in the first instance, virtue after riches” (or “money is the first thing to be sought, good reputation after wealth”); from “Epistles”, book 1 (section 1, lines 53-54), by Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus, 65 BC – 8 BC)
Jon R. Stone. The Routledge Dictionary of Latin Quotations, Routledge, New York, 2005, page 305 [“quaerenda pecunia primum, virtus post nummos”] (accessed 23 January 2013)
Walter Ralph Johnson. Horace and the Dialectic of Freedom: Readings in Epistles 1, Cornell University Press, New York, 1993, page 41 (accessed 23 January 2013)
Practical Latin”, Alan Emrich (accessed 23 January 2013)
Q. Horati Flacci Epistvlarvm Liber Primvs”, The Latin Library [“O ciues, ciues, quaerenda pecunia primum est; uirtus post nummos!”] (accessed 23 January 2013)

Civis Romanus sum = (Latin) “I am a Roman citizen”; the phrase was a reference to someone having the rights of Roman citizenship, with the implication of having the protection of the Roman Empire, and hence could be used to halt arbitrary condemnation and beatings by government authorities; the phrase was famously quoted by Lord Palmerston, the British Foreign Secretary, in the UK parliament in 1850 as part of his defence of his decision to blockade a Greek port to force the Greek government to give financial compensation to David Pacifico (known as Don Pacifico), a British subject living in Greece
Civis Romanus sum”, in: E. Cobham Brewer (editor). Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, Henry Altemus, Philadelphia, 1898 (accessed 29 December 2012)
Palmerston’s speech on affairs in Greece (25 June 1850)”, A Web of English History (accessed 29 December 2012)
Don Pacifico affair and case”, Wikipedia, (accessed 29 December 2012)
Correspondence: Civis Romanus Sum”, Launceston Examiner (Launceston, Tas.), Tuesday 6 April 1886, page 3, (accessed 29 December 2012)

*coglione, il lazzarone in paragone = (Italian) “jerk, the slacker in comparison” (*rough translation)

collaborateur = (French) collaborator (in this context, a person who works with someone else; as distinct from its later usage for someone who collaborates with an enemy)

*Comment se fait il Monseigneur que vous mettez le prix de £500 sur la tete du chef de ces blagueurs du Star Hotel, a Ballaarat; et puis vous lassiez courir le malin a son aise! Avez-vous, oui ou non, Monseigneur, accorde votre pardon a M’Gill? et les autres Americains donc = (French) “How is it that you put Monseigneur the price of £500 on the head of the chief of these jokers Star Hotel, Ballaarat, and then you run the smart weary at his ease! Have you, or not, my lord, give your forgiveness M’Gill? So Americans and other” (*rough translation)

Condemn the wicked, and bring his way upon his head, oh, Lord God of Israel = this is the title of chapter LXVIII (68) of The Eureka Stockade, which was derived from 1 Kings 8:32 in the Bible, “then hear in heaven: and do and judge your servants, condemning the wicked, and bringing his way upon his own head, and justifying the just, and rewarding him according to his justice”
1 Kings 8”, New Advent (accessed 10 January 2013)
1 Kings 8:32”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 10 January 2013)
I Reges 8:32 : Clementine Latin Vulgate Bible parallel: Douay-Rheims, Christian Community, New Jerusalem, Biblia Sacra Vulgatam”, Veritas Bible (accessed 10 January 2013)

corolarium = (Latin) “corollaries” (a corollary is a proposition that naturally follows from, or is inferred from, a proven proposition, and therefore requires little or no additional proof)

cui bono = (Latin) “to whose benefit?” (literally “as a benefit to whom?”), a phrase used in legal circles which refers to the idea that the perpetrator of an act is likely to be someone who stands to gain from the event

*Curoe! Si vada, vedasi, si vinca = (Italian) “Heart! You go, see, you win” (*rough translation)

darbies = handcuffs, or manacles (British slang, from the phrase “Father Darby’s bands”, possibly originating from being bonded, or indebted, to a 16th-century moneylender by the name of Darby)

d——d = damned

*della bella cara Itallia [Italia] = (Italian) “the beautiful beloved Italy” (*rough translation)

*della vita lo spello dal mondo sciolto = (Italian) “life of the peel loose from the world” (*rough translation)

desiderium peccatorum peribit = (Latin) “the desire of the wicked shall perish”; from Psalm 111:10 in the Latin Vulgate Bible [in various other Bibles, this is in Psalm 112:10, as the numbering of the Psalms varies between different versions of the Bible] (as noted by Carboni, this is the last verse of Psalm 111)
Biblia Sacra Vulgatae Editionis, Nicolaum Pezzana [Nicolas Pezzana], Venetiis [Venice, Italy], 1669, page 433 (accessed 20 January 2013)
Psalm 112”, New Advent (accessed 14 January 2013)
Psalm 112:10”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 14 January 2013)
Psalms 111:10 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallel: Christian Community, New Jerusalem, Clementine Latin Vulgate, Biblia Sacra Vulgatam”, Veritas Bible (accessed 14 January 2013)

Deve schiantar le proprie catene = (Italian) “You must burst free of your chains”

Diogenes = Diogenes of Sinope, a Greek philosopher (died 323 BC); Diogenes was known for his philosophical escapades, such as carrying a lamp in the daytime, claiming to be looking for an honest man (apparently this is what Carboni is referring to, i.e. the search for good and honest officials to oversee the goldfields, “good experienced hands and honest men”)

*dirigat dominus reginum nostrum = (Latin) “direct owner of our Queen”, or “may our Lady Queen” (*rough translation)

*disciplina, suprema lex in bello = (Latin) “discipline, the highest law in war” (*rough translation)

divide et impera = (Latin) “divide and rule”
Jon R. Stone. The Routledge Dictionary of Latin Quotations: The Illiterati’s Guide to Latin Maxims, Mottoes, Proverbs, and Sayings, Routledge, New York, 2005, page 350
Peter Archer and Linda Archer. 500 Foreign Words and Phrases You Should Know to Sound Smart, Adams Media, Avon (Massachusetts, USA), 2012, page 64

*Divo jucundo Baccho cultum prestare = “St. Bacchus cult delight performs” (*rough translation)

do. = an abbreviation of “ditto”, meaning: the same as previously stated, the same as above, likewise, the same

docebat enim eos ut habens auctoritatem, non autem ut scribae = (Latin) “for he was teaching them as one having authority, and not as their scribes”, or “for he was teaching them as one having power, and not as the scribes”; from Matthew 7:29 in the Latin Bible
[translated by Théodore de Bèze]. Novum Testamentum Domini Nostri Jesu Christi [The New Testament of Our Lord Jesus Christ], D. Appleton & Company, New York, 1863, page 8
Matthew 7”, New Advent (accessed 3 January 2013)
Matthew 7:29”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 3 January 2013)

dolce far niente = (Italian) “pleasant idleness”, or “sweet idleness” (literally, “sweet doing nothing”)

dooty = duty

duelering = dueling

durum sed levius fit patientia = (Latin) “it is hard but becomes lighter by patience”; from Odes, Book I, section XXIV (line 19), by Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus, 65 BC – 8 BC) [lines 19-20 are “durum!: sed leuius fit patientia quicquid corrigere est nefas”, i.e. “it is hard!: but that which we are not permitted to correct is rendered lighter by patience”]
Jon R. Stone. The Routledge Dictionary of Latin Quotations: The Illiterati’s Guide to Latin Maxims, Mottoes, Proverbs, and Sayings, Routledge, New York, 2005, page 246 (accessed 3 January 2013)
A New Dictionary of Quotations from the Greek, Latin, and Modern Languages, J.B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1869, page 132 (accessed 3 January 2013)
Q. Horati Flacci Carminvm Liber Primvs”, The Latin Library [“durum: sed leuius fit patientia”] (accessed 3 January 2013)

ecce amaritudo mea amarissima = (Latin) “behold my bitterness most bitter”; from Isaiah 38:17 in the Latin Bible, “Ecce in pace amaritudo mea amarissima” (“Behold in peace is my bitterness most bitter”)
Isaiah 38”, New Advent (accessed 10 January 2013)
Isaiah 38:17”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 10 January 2013)
Isaias 38:17 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallel: Christian Community, New Jerusalem, Clementine Latin Vulgate, Biblia Sacra Vulgatam”, Veritas Bible (accessed 10 January 2013)

ecce homo = (Latin) “behold the man”; in Christian iconography, “ecce homo” refers to a painting or sculpture of Jesus wearing a crown of thorns; derived from a reference to Jesus Christ by Pontius Pilate, when he presented Jesus to a hostile crowd, in John 19:5 in the Latin Bible: “exiit ergo Iesus portans spineam coronam et purpureum vestimentum et dicit eis ecce homo” (“Jesus then came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, “Behold, the Man!””) [although used in different contexts, the words “ecce homo” also appear in Psalm 52:9, Matthew 11:19, Matthew 12:10, and Luke 7:34]
John 19:5”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 10 January 2013)
John 19”, New Advent (accessed 10 January 2013)
John 19:5 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallel: Christian Community, New Jerusalem, Clementine Latin Vulgate, Biblia Sacra Vulgatam”, Veritas Bible (accessed 10 January 2013)
Psalm 52”, New Advent (accessed 10 January 2013)
Matthew 11 ”, New Advent (accessed 10 January 2013)
Matthew 12 ”, New Advent (accessed 10 January 2013)
Luke 7”, New Advent (accessed 10 January 2013)

*ecco troncato il canto per ritornare al pianto = (Italian) “truncated here to return to the song cry” (*rough translation)

*et nunc satis, profani vulgus causa = (Latin) and now I have sufficient, for the sake of the common people profane (*rough translation)

El Dorado = (Spanish) “the gilded one”; a place of abundant wealth (especially of gold) or great opportunity; this was a reference to a wealthy gold-laden land or city that was believed to be located somewhere in South America; “the gilded one” (someone covered in gold) was originally a reference to a South American tribal chief who, as an initiation rite, covered himself with gold dust and dove into a lake

*Elle est fameuse, Monseigneur l’intelligence de ceux, qui vous ont conseille l’affaire de Ballaarat! surtout in farce odieuse de haute-trahison = (French) “It is famous, Monseigneur the intelligence of those that you have advised the case of Ballaarat! especially odious farce in high treason” (*rough translation)

*epistolam hanc misi, tunc bene, nunc valde ad opus = (Latin) “I have sent this letter, then it is indeed, now very much to the work of” or “I sent this letter, well then, now most of the work” (*rough translation)

*Est-ce donc un reve, Monseigneur, que votre gouvernment en voulait a ma tete, aussi, bien qu’a celle de douze autres prisonnier, d’etat, et que le peuple nous a acquitte glorieusement par = (French) “Is it a dream, my lord, that you wanted a government in my head, too, although that’s twelve other prisoner of state, and the people we pay for gloriously” (*rough translation)

Est modus in rebus: sunt certi denique fines, quos ultrae. Citraque nequit consistere rectum. = (Latin) “There’s a mean in every thing; and there are certain limits fixed, beyond or short of which virtue cannot subsist”, or “There is a mean in all things; and, moreover, certain limits on either side of which right cannot be found”; from “Satires”, Book 1 (section 1.1, lines 106-107), by Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus, 65 BC – 8 BC)
Horace [Joseph Davidson, editor]. The Works of Horace: Translated into English Prose, Vol. II, fourth edition, R. Manby, London, 1753, pages 16-17 (accessed 29 December 2012)
Hoyt & Roberts [compilers]. Hoyt’s New Cyclopedia of Practical Quotations, Funk & Wagnalls, New York, 1922 (accessed 29 December 2012)
Sermonvm Q. Horati Flacci Liber Primvs”, The Latin Library (accessed 29 December 2012)

et scias quia nihil impium fecerim = (Latin) “Thou knowest that I am not wicked”, or “And shouldst know that I have done no wicked thing”; from Job 10:7 in the Latin Bible
Job chapter 10”, New Advent (accessed 9 January 2013)
Job 10”, New Advent (accessed 9 January 2013)
Job 10:7”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 9 January 2013)
Job 10:7 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallelChristian Community, New Jerusalem, Clementine Latin Vulgate, Biblia Sacra Vulgatam”, Veritas Bible (accessed 9 January 2013)

*Facil declinazione = (Italian) “Easy declination” [“facil” or “facilis” is “easily” or “easy” in Latin] (*rough translation)

favete linguis = (Latin) “favour by your tongues” (i.e. “hold your tongue” or “keep silent”); from Odes, Book 3, section I (line 2), by Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus, 65 BC – 8 BC) [Carboni uses line 1, “odi profanum vulgus et arceo”, in chapters 8, 16 and 52]
Jon R. Stone. The Routledge Dictionary of Latin Quotations: The Illiterati’s Guide to Latin Maxims, Mottoes, Proverbs, and Sayings, Routledge, New York, 2005, page 295 (accessed 29 December 2012)
Q. Horati Flacci Carminvm Liber Tertivs”, The Latin Library [“Fauete linguis”] (accessed 29 December 2012)

Feast of the Assumption = the Christian celebration on 15 August of the ascension into heaven of the Virgin Mary; this is a public holiday in several countries (Eastern Orthodox churches, which use the Julian calendar, celebrate the occasion on August 28)

fiat justitia ruat coelum = (Latin) “let justice be done, though the heavens fall”

*flagitur vulcano si fulmina parata = (Latin) “shame if the fire bolts ready” (*rough translation)

fossiking = fossicking; to search for gold, especially by picking through dirt that has already been worked on

gendarmes = (French) police officers

give a dog a bad name = a reference to the proverb “give a dog a bad name and hang him”, meaning that once enough dirt (slander) has been thrown against someone’s reputation, that you may as well hang him as try to rehabilitate his good name
Emanuel Strauss. Concise Dictionary of European Proverbs, Routledge, New York, 1998, page 240
Ebenezer Cobham Brewer. The Wordsworth Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, Wordsworth Editions, Ware (Herfordshire, UK), 2001, page 349

grappling with the right ‘stars’ = possibly a reference to a classical Greek poem which includes the line “Hast thou been fighting with the Stars, or with the Moon disputing”
Lucy M. J. Garnett and J. S. Stuart-Glennie. New Folklore Researches: Greek Folk Poesy: Annotated Translations, from the Whole Cycle of Romaic Folk-Verse and Folk-Prose by Lucy M. J. Garnett; Edited with Essays on the Science of Folklore, Greek Folkspeech, and the Survival of Paganism, by J. S. Stuart-Glennie, M.A.: Vol. I — Folk-Verse, David Nutt, London, 1896, pages page 170-171 (accessed 12 January 2013)

Haynau = Julius Jacob von Haynau (1786–1853), an Austrian general who had a reputation for brutality against revolutionaries
Julius Jacob von Haynau”, Wikipedia (accessed 10 January 2013)

Hesperia = an ancient name for Italy; Hesperia, meaning “Western”, was a name given to it by the Greeks, referring to Italy being a land to the West of Greece
Encyclopaedia Britannica: Or, a Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature: Volume 11 (6th edition), Archibald Constable and Company, Edinburgh, 1823, page 365

Hesperia! quando ego te auspiciam? quandoque licebit nunc veterum libris, nunc somno et inertibus horis, ducere solicitae licunda oblivia vitae. = (Latin) “Italy! when shall I see you! And when will it be granted [that] now by aged books, now by sleep and idle hours to pursue happy forgetfulness of a life of obligation” (or “Italy! when will I see you? And when will it be permitted, sometimes with the texts of the ancients, sometimes with sleep and quiet hours, for me to find sweet oblivion from life’s troubles”); from “Satires”, Book 2 (section 2.6, lines 60-63), by Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus, 65 BC – 8 BC); however, Carboni begins his sentence with “Hesperia!”, which in this context is a reference to Italy (in this sentence, Carboni is expressing a desire to return to his homeland), whilst, in the original text, Horace begins the sentence with “O rus” (usually translated as “O countryside”, but it has also been rendered as “Oh rustic home”): “o rus, quando ego te adspiciam quandoque licebit nunc veterum libris, nunc somno et inertibus horisducere sollicitae iucunda oblivia vitae?”
Sermonvm Q. Horati Flacci Liber Secvndvs”, The Latin Library (accessed 14 January 2013)
Steven G. Harms. “Birthday Dinner in Sonoma”, stevengharms.com: Sententiae viri ex temporibus duobus, 13 February 2011 (accessed 14 January 2013)
I May Be Wrong, I May Be Right”, Eyeless In Gaza, 21 March 2005 (accessed 14 January 2013)
Robin P. Bond. “Urbs satirica: The city in Roman satire with special reference to Horace and Juvenal” [PDF file], Department of Classics, University of Otago, New Zealand (accessed 14 January 2013)
John MacQueen. Allegory, Methuen & Co., London, 1981 (c1970), page 29 (accessed 14 January 2013)

Heu mihi! pingui quam macer est mihi taurus in arvo = (Latin) “Woe is me! How lean is my bull in a fertile field!”; from “Ecloga Tertia” (“Eclogues Book 3”) (line 100) by Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro, 70 BC – 19 BC), “Eheu, quam pingui macer est mihi taurus in arvo!” (“Alas, how lean is my bull in a fertile field!”, or “Alas, how lean is my bull on yonder clovered plain”)
The Works of Virgil Translated into English Prose (volume 1), George B. Whittaker et al, London, 1826, page 17 (1st line) (accessed 18 January 2013)
The Works of Virgil, in Latin and English (third edition), J. Dodsley, London, 1778, pages 108 (line 100, in Latin) and 109 (line 145, in English) (accessed 18 January 2013)
Paul Alpers. The Singer of the Eclogues: A Study of Virgilian Pastoral, with a New Translation of the Eclogues, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1979, pages 24-25 (accessed 18 January 2013)
Psalm 120”, New Advent [“Heu mihi”] (accessed 18 January 2013)
Bruce Bishop. Story of Jephtah: An Oratorio by Giacomo Carissimi, [University of Arizona, 2007?], page 43 [“Heu mihi”] (accessed 18 January 2013)
P. Vergili Maronis Ecloga Tertia”, The Latin Library [“Heu heu, quam pingui macer est mihi taurus in ervo!”] (accessed 18 January 2013)

*Heu Mihi! Sermo meus, veritas = (Latin) “Woe is me! My word, the truth” (*rough translation)

*Homo natus de muliere, brevi vivens tempore repletur multis miseries. Qui quasi flos conterritur et egreditur; postea velut umbra disperditur. = (Latin) “Man born of a woman, living for a short time, is filled with many miseries. Frightened, like a flower, and it goeth out; afterwards wrecked as a shadow” (*rough translation); from Job 14:1-2 in the Latin Bible, “Homo natus de muliere, brevi vivens tempore, repletur multis miseriis. Qui quasi flos egreditur et conteritur, et fugit velut umbra, et numquam in eodem statu permanent” (“Man born of a woman, living for a short time, is filled with many miseries. Who comes forth like a flower, and is destroyed, and flees as a shadow, and never continues in the same state.”)
Job 14”, New Advent (accessed 14 January 2013)
Job 14:1”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 14 January 2013)
Job 14:2”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 14 January 2013)
Job 14 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallel: Christian Community, New Jerusalem, Clementine Latin Vulgate, Biblia Sacra Vulgatam”, Veritas Bible (accessed 14 January 2013)

honi soi qui mal y pense [honi soit qui mal y pense] = (French) “shamed be he who thinks evil of it” or “shame upon him who thinks evil upon it”; the phrase is the motto of the Order of the Garter, founded by King Edward III (UK) in about 1344-1348; in modern French, the phrase is rendered as “honni soit qui mal y pense” (“honni” with two Ns)

homo sum, nil humani a me alienum puto = (Latin) “I am man, I think nothing human alien to me”, or “I am a human being, and I consider nothing belonging to humanity as alien to me”, from the play “Heauton Timorumenos” (“The Self-Tormentor”) (line 77) by Terence (Publius Terentius, ca.195 BC – 159? BC), “homo sum: humani nil a me alienum puto” [this quote, rendered as “Homo sum: humani a me nihil alienum puto”, was used in “Nero: Tragaedia Nova” by Matthew Gwinne (1558? – 1627) and in “Oratio VI” (Oration 6) by Giambattista Vico (1668 – 1744)]
Max Gauna. The Rabelaisian Mythologies, Associated University Presses, Cranbury (New Jersey), 1996, page 51 (accessed 18 January 2013)
Riccardo Steiner. “Foreward”, in: Salomon Resnik. Mental Space, Karnac Books, London, 1995, [page 13] (accessed 18 January 2013)
P. Terenti Afri Heavton Timorvmenos”, The Latin Library (accessed 18 January 2013)
Heauton Timorumenos”, Wikipedia (accessed 18 January 2013)
Nero Tragaedia Nova”, The Latin Library (accessed 18 January 2013)
Matthew Gwinne”, Wikipedia (accessed 18 January 2013)
Giambattista Vico: Oratio VI”, The Latin Library (accessed 18 January 2013)
Giambattista Vico”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University (accessed 18 January 2013)

I.C. Rangers’ Brigade = in chapter 50 (L), Carboni notes the name of the “The Independent Californian Rangers’ Revolver Brigade”; however in chapter 55 (LV) he refers to it as the “Independent Californian Rangers’ Rifle Brigade”

*il cane non abbaia col ventre pieno = (Italian) “the dog does not bark with a full belly” (*rough translation)

*Il faut donc que j’aie eu des ennemis bien cruels au Camp! Avaient-ils soif de mon sang, ou etaient-ils de mercenaires? Voila bien un secret, et je donnerai de coeur ma vie pour le percer. Dieu leur pardonne, moi, je le voudrais bien! mais je ne saurai les pardonner jamais = (French) “Therefore I have been very cruel enemies to Camp! Had my thirst for blood, or were they mercenaries? Here is a secret, and I will give my life for the heart break. God forgive me, I would love to! but I know never forgive” (*rough translation)

incipit lamentatio = (Latin) “here begins the lamentation” or “the beginning of the lamentations”; from the Catholic Church’s melodic recitations of the “Lamentations of Jeremiah”, which are prefaced with the sentence “Incipit Lamentatio Jeremiae Prophetae”, i.e. “Here begins the Lamentation of the Prophet Jeremiah” (regarding the book in the Bible entitled “The Lamentations of Jeremiah”, or “The Lamentations of the Prophet Jeremias”)
Lamentations, Book of”, The Jewish Virtual Library (accessed 29 December 2012)
Ephraim Radner. Leviticus, Brazos Press, Grand Rapids MI, 2008, page 277 (accessed 29 December 2012)
Andrew Thomas Kuster. Stravinsky’s Topology, University of Colorado, Boulder, 2005, c2000 page 118 (accessed 29 December 2012)
Dennis Shrock. Choral Repertoire, Oxford University Press, New York, 2009, page 148 (accessed 29 December 2012)
Richard Goebel (editor). Lamentationes Jeremiae: Johann David Heinichen, Middleton, Wisconsin, 2003, page viii (accessed 29 December 2012)

initium sapientie est timor Domini = (Latin) “the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom”; from Psalm 110:10 in the Latin Vulgate Bible [in various other Bibles, this is in Psalm 111:10, as the numbering of the Psalms varies between different versions of the Bible]; this phrase is very similar to that of Proverbs 9:10, “principium sapientiae timor Domini” (which also translates as “the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom”)
initium sapientie est timor Domini:
Biblia Sacra Vulgatae Editionis, Nicolaum Pezzana [Nicolas Pezzana], Venetiis [Venice, Italy], 1669, page 432 (accessed 20 January 2013)
Psalm 111”, New Advent [“initium sapientiæ timor Domini”] (accessed 14 January 2013)
Psalm 111:10”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 14 January 2013)
Psalms 111:10 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallel: Christian Community, New Jerusalem, Clementine Latin Vulgate, Biblia Sacra Vulgatam”, Veritas Bible (accessed 14 January 2013)
principium sapientiae timor Domini:
Proverbs 9”, New Advent [“Principium sapientiæ timor Domini”] (accessed 14 January 2013)
Proverbs 9:10”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 14 January 2013)
Proverbs 9:10 : Douay-Rheims Bible parallel: Christian Community, New Jerusalem, Clementine Latin Vulgate, Biblia Sacra Vulgatam”, Veritas Bible (accessed 14 January 2013)

*in memoria eterna manet amicus = (Latin) “in eternal memory remains a friend” (*rough translation)

in propria persona = (Latin) “one’s own person”, or “in person”; in the legal field, “in propria persona” refers to someone appearing on their own behalf (not being represented by a lawyer)

in sudore vultus lue vesceris panem [in sudore vultus tui vesceris pane] = “by the sweat of your face shall you eat bread” [i.e. “by working, you will eat food”] (Raffaello Carboni translates the phrase as “in the sweat of thy brow thou shalt eat bread”); from Genesis 3:19 in the Latin Bible
Genesis 3”, New Advent (accessed 4 January 2013)
Genesis 3:19”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 4 January 2013)
Genesis 3 : New Jerusalem Bible parallel: Douay-Rheims, Clementine Latin Vulgate, Christian Community”, Veritas Bible (accessed 4 January 2013)

in urbe or orbe terrarum = (Latin) “in the city or the world”; this relates to the phrase Carboni uses in chapter LXXXVIII (88) “urbis et orbis terrarium” (“the city and the world”), derived from “Fasti” (book II, line 684), by Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso, 43 BC – 17 AD) “romanae spatium est urbis et orbis idem” (“the space of the city of Rome is the space of the world”, i.e. “the domains of Rome’s city and the world are one”)

*invanum laboravimus = (Latin) “false read circulated” (*rough translation)

in vino veritas = (Latin) “in wine there is truth”

**Is there a mortal eye that never wept? = possibly a reference to a sentence in the sermons of John Donne, “And when God shall come to that last act in the glorifying of man, when he promises, to wipe all tears from his eyes, what shall God have to do with that eye that never wept?” (in the sermon “Sermon XIII. Preached at Whitehall, the first Friday in Lent, 1622. John xi. 35. Jesus wept.”)
The Works of John Donne, D.D., Dean of Saint Paul’s, 1621-1631 (Volume 1), John W. Parker, London, 1839, page 259 [the sermon commences on page 251] (accessed 10 January 2013)
Sermon XIII” (The Works of John Donne, Volume 1), Bible Study Tools Online (accessed 10 January 2013)

Jack Falstaff = Sir John Falstaff, a character portrayed as a cowardly fat knight, who appeared in several plays by William Shakespeare (1564 BC – 1616 BC) [the plays Falstaff appears in are: Henry IV, Part 1; Henry IV, Part 2; and The Merry Wives of Windsor; and he is mentioned in Henry V]
Sir John Falstaff”, Encyclopædia Britannica (accessed 31 January 2013)
Falstaff”, Wikipedia (accessed 31 January 2013)

Jack Ketch = John Ketch (commonly known as Jack Ketch), an English executioner who was infamous for his inhumane and terrible bungling of the beheadings of Lord Russell (1863) and James Scott, the Duke of Monmouth (1685)

jam non estis hospites et advenoe [advenae] = (Latin) “now you are no more strangers and foreigners”, or “you are no longer strangers and aliens”; from Ephesians 2:19 in the Latin Bible
Ephesians 2”, New Advent (accessed 29 December 2012)
Ephesians 2:19”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 29 December 2012)

*jam satis dixi = (Latin) “I have said enough already” or “now I have said enough” (*rough translation); possibly a reference to the writings of Saint Augustine (Aurelius Augustinus, or Saint Augustine of Hippo, 354 – 430), who uses the phrase *“iam satis diximus” (“I have said enough already”) (*rough translation) in De Civitate Dei (Of the City of God), Books 8 and 21
Augustini de Civitate Dei Liber VIII”, The Latin Library (accessed 28 January 2013)
Augustini de Civitate Dei Liber XXI”, The Latin Library (accessed 28 January 2013)
Saint Augustine”, Encyclopædia Britannica (accessed 28 January 2013)
Augustine of Hippo”, Wikipedia (accessed 28 January 2013)

*Je ne manquerai pas de parler au Docteur Carr, et si ce que vous venez de me dire e trouve vrai, je veux bien m’interesser pour vous = (French) “I will not fail to speak to Dr. Carr, and if what you just told me is true, I’m willing interest to you” (*rough translation)

*Je veux bien vous aider, car tout est encore a batir a Ballaarat, et il nous faut des briques — revenez me voir = (French) “I want to help you, because everything is still to build a Ballaarat, and we need bricks — come back to me” (*rough translation)

Joe = on the goldfields, this was a call of derision; from the call of warning regarding police on the diggings searching for miners without gold licences, where a general call would go out amongst the diggers of “Joe”, being a reference to Governor Joseph LaTrobe

John Bull = a personification of Britain, or England in particular; in this context, “John Bull” is a reference to the British colonial administration in Victoria

Judas Iscariot = the disciple who betrayed Jesus Christ; used as a general term for a betrayer or traitor

judica me Deus, et discarne causam meam de gente non sancta; ab homine iniquo et doloso erue me = (Latin) “judge me, O God, and distinguish my cause from the nation that is not holy; deliver me from the unjust and deceitful man”; from Psalm 42:1 in the Latin Vulgate Bible [in various other Bibles, this is in Psalm 43:1, as the numbering of the Psalms varies between different versions of the Bible] [“discarne” is usually given as “discerne”, which would render the chapter title as “Judica me Deus, et discerne causam meam de gente non sancta; ab homine iniquo et doloso erue me”]
Biblia Sacra Vulgatae Editionis, Nicolaum Pezzana [Nicolas Pezzana], Venetiis [Venice, Italy], 1669, page 406 (accessed 20 January 2013)
Psalm 43”, New Advent (accessed 14 January 2013)
Psalm 43:1”, Online Multilingual Bible (accessed 14 January 2013)

*Julii Caesaris junioris. De Campis Aureis, Australia Felix Commentaria = (Latin) “Julius Caesar junior. Fields of gold, commentary on fortunate Australia” (*rough translation)

Jupiter Tonans = “Jupiter the Thunderer” (or “Thundering Jove”); from the Latin “Iuppiter” for Jupiter, “tonans” for thundering; in Roman mythology, Jupiter was the god of sky and thunder





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